shiro 简介

标签: shiro

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简介

1、Apache Shiro 是Java 的一个安全(权限)框架
2、Shiro 可以非常容易的开发出足够好的应用,其不仅可以用在JavaSE环境,也可以用JavaEE环境。
3、Shiro可以完成:认证、授权、加密、会话管理、与Web 集成、缓存等。
4、下载:http://shiro.apache.org/

功能介绍

基本功能点如下图所示:
这里写图片描述
Authentication:身份认证/登录,验证用户是不是拥有相应的身份;

Authorization:授权,即权限验证,验证某个已认证的用户是否拥有某个权限;即判断用户是否能进行什么操作,如:验证某个用户是否拥有某个角色。或者细粒度的验证某个用户对某个资源是否具有某个权限;

Session Manager:会话管理,即用户登录后就是一次会话,在没有退出之前,它的所有信息都在会话中;会话可以是普通 JavaSE 环境,也可以是 Web 环境的;

Cryptography:加密,保护数据的安全性,如密码加密存储到数据库,而不是明文存储;

Web Support:Web 支持,可以非常容易的集成到Web 环境;

Caching:缓存,比如用户登录后,其用户信息、拥有的角色/权限不必每次去查,这样可以提高效率;

Concurrency:Shiro 支持多线程应用的并发验证,即如在一个线程中开启另一个线程,能把权限自动传播过去;

Testing:提供测试支持;

Run As:允许一个用户假装为另一个用户(如果他们允许)的身份进行访问;

Remember Me:记住我,这个是非常常见的功能,即一次登录后,下次再来的话不用登录了

Shrio架构(shiro外部来看)

从外部来看Shiro,即从应用程序角度的来观察如何使Shiro完成工作:
这里写图片描述

• Subject:应用代码直接交互的对象是 Subject,也就是说 Shiro 的对外API 核心就是 Subject。Subject 代表了当前“用户”, 这个用户不一定是一个具体的人,与当前应用交互的任何东西都是 Subject,如网络爬虫,机器人等;与 Subject 的所有交互都会委托给 SecurityManager;Subject 其实是一个门面,SecurityManager 才是实际的执行者;

• SecurityManager:安全管理器;即所有与安全有关的操作都会与SecurityManager 交互;且其管理着所有 Subject;可以看出它是 Shiro 的核心,它负责与 Shiro 的其他组件进行交互,它相当于 SpringMVC 中DispatcherServlet 的角色

• Realm:Shiro 从 Realm 获取安全数据(如用户、角色、权限),就是说SecurityManager 要验证用户身份,那么它需要从 Realm 获取相应的用户进行比较以确定用户身份是否合法;也需要从 Realm 得到用户相应的角色/ 权限进行验证用户是否能进行操作;可以把 Realm 看成 DataSource

Shrio架构(shiro内部来看)

这里写图片描述
• Subject:任何可以与应用交互的“用户”;

• SecurityManager :相当于SpringMVC 中的 DispatcherServlet;是 Shiro 的心脏;所有具体的交互都通过 SecurityManager 进行控制;它管理着所有 Subject、且负责进行认证、授权、会话及缓存的管理。

• Authenticator:负责 Subject 认证,是一个扩展点,可以自定义实现;可以使用认证策略(Authentication Strategy),即什么情况下算用户认证通过了;

• Authorizer:授权器、即访问控制器,用来决定主体是否有权限进行相应的操作;即控制着用户能访问应用中的哪些功能;

• Realm:可以有 1 个或多个 Realm,可以认为是安全实体数据源,即用于获取安全实体的;可以是JDBC 实现,也可以是内存实现等等;由用户提供;所以一般在应用中都需要实现自己的 Realm;

• SessionManager:管理 Session 生命周期的组件;而 Shiro 并不仅仅可以用在 Web 环境,也可以用在如普通的 JavaSE 环境

• CacheManager:缓存控制器,来管理如用户、角色、权限等的缓存的;因为这些数据基本上很少改变,放到缓存中后可以提高访问的性能

• Cryptography:密码模块,Shiro 提高了一些常见的加密组件用于如密码加密/解密。

Shiro—HelloWorld

这个 HelloWorld 是在shiro官方参考文档拿出来的

这里写图片描述

log4j.properties

log4j.rootLogger=INFO, stdout

log4j.appender.stdout=org.apache.log4j.ConsoleAppender
log4j.appender.stdout.layout=org.apache.log4j.PatternLayout
log4j.appender.stdout.layout.ConversionPattern=%d %p [%c] - %m %n

# General Apache libraries
log4j.logger.org.apache=WARN

# Spring
log4j.logger.org.springframework=WARN

# Default Shiro logging
log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro=TRACE

# Disable verbose logging
log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro.util.ThreadContext=WARN
log4j.logger.org.apache.shiro.cache.ehcache.EhCache=WARN

shiro.imi

#
# Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
# or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
# distributed with this work for additional information
# regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
# to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
# "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
# with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
# software distributed under the License is distributed on an
# "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
# KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
# specific language governing permissions and limitations
# under the License.
#
# =============================================================================
# Quickstart INI Realm configuration
#
# For those that might not understand the references in this file, the
# definitions are all based on the classic Mel Brooks' film "Spaceballs". ;)
# =============================================================================

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Users and their assigned roles
#
# Each line conforms to the format defined in the
# org.apache.shiro.realm.text.TextConfigurationRealm#setUserDefinitions JavaDoc
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[users]
# user 'root' with password 'secret' and the 'admin' role
root = secret, admin
# user 'guest' with the password 'guest' and the 'guest' role
guest = guest, guest
# user 'presidentskroob' with password '12345' ("That's the same combination on
# my luggage!!!" ;)), and role 'president'
presidentskroob = 12345, president
# user 'darkhelmet' with password 'ludicrousspeed' and roles 'darklord' and 'schwartz'
darkhelmet = ludicrousspeed, darklord, schwartz
# user 'lonestarr' with password 'vespa' and roles 'goodguy' and 'schwartz'
lonestarr = vespa, goodguy, schwartz

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Roles with assigned permissions
# 
# Each line conforms to the format defined in the
# org.apache.shiro.realm.text.TextConfigurationRealm#setRoleDefinitions JavaDoc
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[roles]
# 'admin' role has all permissions, indicated by the wildcard '*'
admin = *
# The 'schwartz' role can do anything (*) with any lightsaber:
schwartz = lightsaber:*
# The 'goodguy' role is allowed to 'delete' (action) the user (type) with
# license plate 'zhangsan' (instance specific id)
goodguy = user:delete:zhangsan

Quickstart.java

package com.atguigu.shiro.helloworld;

import org.apache.shiro.SecurityUtils;
import org.apache.shiro.authc.*;
import org.apache.shiro.config.IniSecurityManagerFactory;
import org.apache.shiro.mgt.SecurityManager;
import org.apache.shiro.session.Session;
import org.apache.shiro.subject.Subject;
import org.apache.shiro.util.Factory;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;


/**
 * Simple Quickstart application showing how to use Shiro's API.
 *
 * @since 0.9 RC2
 */
public class Quickstart {

    private static final transient Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(Quickstart.class);


    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // The easiest way to create a Shiro SecurityManager with configured
        // realms, users, roles and permissions is to use the simple INI config.
        // We'll do that by using a factory that can ingest a .ini file and
        // return a SecurityManager instance:

        // Use the shiro.ini file at the root of the classpath
        // (file: and url: prefixes load from files and urls respectively):
        Factory<SecurityManager> factory = new IniSecurityManagerFactory("classpath:shiro.ini");
        SecurityManager securityManager = factory.getInstance();

        // for this simple example quickstart, make the SecurityManager
        // accessible as a JVM singleton.  Most applications wouldn't do this
        // and instead rely on their container configuration or web.xml for
        // webapps.  That is outside the scope of this simple quickstart, so
        // we'll just do the bare minimum so you can continue to get a feel
        // for things.
        SecurityUtils.setSecurityManager(securityManager);

        // Now that a simple Shiro environment is set up, let's see what you can do:

        // get the currently executing user:
        // 获取当前的 Subject. 调用 SecurityUtils.getSubject();
        Subject currentUser = SecurityUtils.getSubject();

        // Do some stuff with a Session (no need for a web or EJB container!!!)
        // 测试使用 Session 
        // 获取 Session: Subject#getSession()
        Session session = currentUser.getSession();
        session.setAttribute("someKey", "aValue");
        String value = (String) session.getAttribute("someKey");
        if (value.equals("aValue")) {
            log.info("---> Retrieved the correct value! [" + value + "]");
        }

        // let's login the current user so we can check against roles and permissions:
        // 测试当前的用户是否已经被认证. 即是否已经登录. 
        // 调动 Subject 的 isAuthenticated() 
        if (!currentUser.isAuthenticated()) {
            // 把用户名和密码封装为 UsernamePasswordToken 对象
            UsernamePasswordToken token = new UsernamePasswordToken("lonestarr", "vespa");
            // rememberme
            token.setRememberMe(true);
            try {
                // 执行登录. 
                currentUser.login(token);
            } 
            // 若没有指定的账户, 则 shiro 将会抛出 UnknownAccountException 异常. 
            catch (UnknownAccountException uae) {
                log.info("----> There is no user with username of " + token.getPrincipal());
                return; 
            } 
            // 若账户存在, 但密码不匹配, 则 shiro 会抛出 IncorrectCredentialsException 异常。 
            catch (IncorrectCredentialsException ice) {
                log.info("----> Password for account " + token.getPrincipal() + " was incorrect!");
                return; 
            } 
            // 用户被锁定的异常 LockedAccountException
            catch (LockedAccountException lae) {
                log.info("The account for username " + token.getPrincipal() + " is locked.  " +
                        "Please contact your administrator to unlock it.");
            }
            // ... catch more exceptions here (maybe custom ones specific to your application?
            // 所有认证时异常的父类. 
            catch (AuthenticationException ae) {
                //unexpected condition?  error?
            }
        }

        //say who they are:
        //print their identifying principal (in this case, a username):
        log.info("----> User [" + currentUser.getPrincipal() + "] logged in successfully.");

        //test a role:
        // 测试是否有某一个角色. 调用 Subject 的 hasRole 方法. 
        if (currentUser.hasRole("schwartz")) {
            log.info("----> May the Schwartz be with you!");
        } else {
            log.info("----> Hello, mere mortal.");
            return; 
        }

        //test a typed permission (not instance-level)
        // 测试用户是否具备某一个行为. 调用 Subject 的 isPermitted() 方法。 
        if (currentUser.isPermitted("lightsaber:weild")) {
            log.info("----> You may use a lightsaber ring.  Use it wisely.");
        } else {
            log.info("Sorry, lightsaber rings are for schwartz masters only.");
        }

        //a (very powerful) Instance Level permission:
        // 测试用户是否具备某一个行为. 
        if (currentUser.isPermitted("user:delete:zhangsan")) {
            log.info("----> You are permitted to 'drive' the winnebago with license plate (id) 'eagle5'.  " +
                    "Here are the keys - have fun!");
        } else {
            log.info("Sorry, you aren't allowed to drive the 'eagle5' winnebago!");
        }

        //all done - log out!
        // 执行登出. 调用 Subject 的 Logout() 方法. 
        System.out.println("---->" + currentUser.isAuthenticated());

        currentUser.logout();

        System.out.println("---->" + currentUser.isAuthenticated());

        System.exit(0);
    }
}

在这就截图运行后面打印的两个结果 , 中间的打印信息可以自己去尝试,每一个方法都有说明。

这里写图片描述

介绍完毕 各位大佬 喜欢可以赞一下或关注一下哦

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